The White Goddess


[The White Goddess.  Graves, R.  Faber, London (1981).

2nd millennium BC – different periods – ‘people of the sea’ displaced from the Aegean. The People of the Sea = mercantile confederacy (of tribes). Displaced by invaders from north east + south east.

Some wandered north (already established trade routes). Eventually > Britain, Ireland (via north Africa, Spain). Others > Syria, Canaan (among them = Philistines).

Philistines – capture shrine of Hebron (Judaea) from Edomite clan of Caleb. Calebites – Dog-men (allies of Israelite tribe of Judah). Recovered shrine 200 years later. Aegean Mother-and Son religious tradition. Aramaean or Indo-European ‘warrior god’ elements.


Danu, Danae, Don – Roman records = Donnus (divine father of Cottius). Cottius = sacred king of Cottians (Ligurian confederacy). Hence > Cottian Alps. Cottys, Cotys, Cottius = widely distributed name. Cotys = dynastic title in Thrace (4th BC . 1st AD). Cattini, Attacoti = north Britain. Many Celt and Cott tribes between Britain > Thrace.

Cotys dynasty = Paphiagonia (south shore – Black Sea). All take name – Goddess Cotytto (Cotys). Worshipped orgiastically in Thrace, Corinth, Sicily. Nocturnal orgies (the Cotyttia) – similar – Demeter (Barley Goddess of primitive Greece). Also – Cybele (lion and bee goddess of Phrygia).

Classical legend

Cottys = 100 handed brother of 100 handed monsters (Briareus + Gyes = allies of Zeus in war with Titans). War against Titans > borders of Thrace, Thessaly. These monsters = Hecatontocherioi (the hundred-handed ones). Story of this war only intelligible in light of early Greek history.

The first Greeks to invade Greece were “…the Achaeans who broke into Thessaly about 1900 BC; they were patriarchal herdsman and worshipped an Indo-European male trinity of gods. originally perhaps Mitra, Varuna and Indra whom the Mitanni of Asia Minor still remembered in 1400 BC, and subsequently called Zeus, Poseidon and Hades.” [62].

They gradually conquered the whole of Greece and tried to “…destroy the semi-matriarchal Bronze Age civilisation that they found there, but later compromised with it, accepted matrilinear succession and enrolled themselves as sons of the variously named Great Goddess.” [62].


Named the local populations Pelasgians. Pelasgians = mixed long + round heads = seafarers. Pelasgians may have called themselves Danaans, after Danae. Dane = one form of Eurynome (whom Pelasgians claimed as their ancestor with Ophion = a cosmic snake). Danae presided over agriculture.

Achaeans – took name of Danaans > became seafarers (those at Argolis). Achaeans north of Corinth = Ionians (children of cow goddess Io).

Pelasgians driven out of Argolis > Labos, Chios, Cnidos. Others > Thrace, Troad, north Aegean islands. A few clans > Attica.

Remaining Pelasgians = warlike – Centaurs of Magnesia. Clan totems = wryneck, mountain lion. Worshipped horses (European type not Asiatic).

Centaurs = sacred king = Cheiron. Welcomed Achaean aid against their enemies = Lapiths (north Thessaly). Cheiron = cheir (Greek for hand). Centaur = centron (a goat).

Mother goddess = Lecotheia (Greek for White Goddess) = Ino, Plastene. Also became – ‘Mother’ of Melicertes (Hercules Melkarth). Hercules Melkarth = god of earlier semi-Semitic invaders.

Victory by Zeus + Hecatontocherois over Titans (Thessaly). Legend – probably refers – later occasion = Greeks subdue Magnesians (Magnesians = exogamous practices). Magnesian practices “…conflicted with Olympian patriarchal theory…”[63]. Achaeans – Cretanised – between 17th and 15th C’s BC.  Late Minoan in Greece = Mycenaean.

Aeolian Greeks

Invaded Thessaly from north > occupied Boetia + west Peloponnese. Settled with Achaean Danaans. Known as Minyans. Both nations attack Cnossos (circa 1400 BC). Ended Cretan sea power = reduction of Crete > expansion of Mycenean sea power. Thence > conquests > Asia Minor, Phoecicia, Libya, Aegean.

Circa 1250 BC – distinction arose – Achaean Danaans & north west Greek Achaeans. Invaded north west Achaeans > occupied Peloponnese and “…founded a new patriarchal dynasty, repudiated the sovereignty of the Great Goddess, and instituted the familiar Olympian pantheon, rules over by Zeus, in which gods and goddesses were equally represented.” [64].

Myths of Zeus’s quarrels with Hera (a name of the Great Goddess) + with Poseidon + with Apollo of Dephi = “…the religious revolution was at first strongly resisted by the Danaans and Pelasgians.” [64].

United Greece > sacked Troy (strategic on the Dardanelles). Generation after fall of Troy = another Indo-European horde passed into Asia Minor/Europe. Among them – Dorians > invaded Greece. Thus – fugitives > all directions.

Danu (Tuatha de Danaan) > 

Danae of Argos (pre-Achaean). Dane – power > Thessaly. Mothered – early Achaean dynasty (House of Perseus). Perseus = pterseus (the destroyer). By Homer’s time – Danae masculinised to Danaus, son of Belus. Belus – brought ‘daughters’ to Greece, via Libya, Egypt, Syria, Rhodes. Belus’s 3 daughters = Linda, Cameira., Laksya = titles of the goddess.

Goddess = Lamia – daughter of Belus, Libyan queen. Daughters of Danaus (Danaids) – 3 of 50 = regular number of priestesses in Argive/Elian colleges of the Mother Goddess Cult. [See myth of massacre of sons of Aegyptus]. Original Danaans – possibly – came up to the Aegean from Lake Tritonis (Libya). Likely called Danaans in Syria.

Cottians – came to Greece from Black Sea via Phrygia, Thrace. Also called Danaans. Thus – arrived before Aeolians. Thus – Graeco-Libyans + Thraco-Pgrygians = related tribal groups – relatives among early Cretans.

Further identification – Danu with Mother Goddess of ‘Danuna’. Danuna = Aegean people. Circa 1200 BC – invaded north Syria (in company with Sherdina and Zakkala of Lydia + Shaksala of Phrygia + Puesati of Lycia + Akaiwasha of Pamphylia. Egyptian sources – these tribes = ‘peoples of the sea’. Akaiwasha = Achaeans.

Forced by pressure of new Indo-European horde > emigrate from coastal Asia Minor, Aegean islands + Greece. Pulesati > Philistines (south Phoenicia) – mixed with Cherethites (Cretans). Another emigrant people (conquerors of the Hiitites) = Muski (to Assyrians) or Moschians (to Greeks) > Upper Eurphrates at Hierapolis.

Tribes/clans (same confederacy) > west > Sicily, Italy, north Africa, Spain. [see Lucian – De Dea Syria = clear picture of Aegean Bronze Age religion].

Zakkala > Sicels = Scicily. Sherdina > Sardinia. Tursha > Tursenians (Tyrrhenians) = Etruria. Some Danaans > west – Balearic tradition (kingdom) founded by Tieoptolemus + Lindus.  Lindus – masculinisation – Linda (Danaan).

Some remained – Asia Minor – Taurus foothills – Alexandretta. This city = Hittite, Aramaic script = Canaanite language = Assyro-Hittite, Egyptian, Aegean sculpture styles.

Hence – Greek account = Danaans – son of Agenor (Canaan). Thus – Libya > Egypt > Syria. Zeus “…was at one time the name of a herdsman’s oracular hero, connected with the oak-tree cult of Dodona in Epirus, which was presided over by the dove-priestess of Dione, a woodland Great Goddess, otherwise known as Diana.” [65].

[See – Dione, Cronos emasculation, Druids – oak cult, barley cult, mistletoe]. [Also – Alphito, Demeter, Ceres, reaping/castration, sickles]. Thus – “…the Achaean herdsmen who on their arrival in northern Greece had identified their sky-god with the local oak-hero gained ascendancy over the Pelasgian agriculturists. But there was a compromise between the two cults. Dione or Diana of the woodland, was identified with Danae of the barley…” [66].

Etymological – Cronos – derivation = cron or coru > words for crow. Latin = commix. Greek = corone. Greek – Corone (also corax = raven). Latitn – corvus = raven. Thus > Bran = Crow God. Briareus = Bran. [Early Britain. Milton, J].

Albion = Albina (White Goddess) – eldest Danaid. River Elbe – Albis in Latin. Hence – German = elven (elf-woman) – alb = elf. Also – alpdrucken = nightmare, incubus (Greek Alphos = dull white, leprosy), Latin = albus. Argos = shimmering white (also = quick as a flash).

Io = white cow aspect of the Goddess as Barley Goddess. Also = white mare – Leucippe. Also = white sow – Choere, Phorcis (Marpessa). [See – Caridwen, Ceridwen]. Caridwen = white sow-goddess. Welsh bards – Caridwen = Grain Goddess – equates with her as sow-Demeter. Cerridwen = cerrd + wen. Cerrd = grain (Irish + Welsh). Wen = white. [See MacCulloch. Religion of the Ancient Celts].

Cerrd = also – the inspired arts, poetry. Thus Greek – credos, cerdeia = derivation of Latin cerdo (craftsman). Cerridwen = white sow/barley goddess + White Lady of Death + Albina/Alphito – Barley Goddess > name to Britain.

In Greek – Thessalian witch disguise = weasel = cedo (artful one). Cerdo (ancient, unknown origin = Spanish ‘pig’). Cerdana = Spanish corn-land district (Pyrenees) = valley of Cerdana dominated by town Pingcerda (or Cerdo’s hill). Cerd = Iberian royal names (Cerdubelus or Luig = ancient Iberian chieftain).

Latins worshipped Cardea (White Goddess). [Ovid’s story of Cardea = inside out (Fasti)]. Caedea = Aphisto – destroyed children disguised as a bird/beast. Hawthorn – sacred – Alphisto. Not in house with children.

Janus (guardian of the oak door) kept out Cardea. Janus = oak god – Dianus. Janus’s wife = Jana (Diana or Dione). Janus + Jana = rustic form – Jupiter, Juno. Thus Jupiter = Jun-pater (father Dianus). Prior Jupiter’s (Janus, Dianus) marriage > Juno (Jana, Diana) = her son (of White Goddess) Jans > door. But – Cardea (Jana) . the hinge.

Cardo = hinge (same as cerdo – craftsman). In Irish myth = god of craftsmen specialising in hinges, locks, rivets = Credne.  Cardea + Janus’s mistress > “…given the task of keeping from the door the nursery bogey who in matriarchal times was her own august self and who was propitiated at Roman weddings with torches of hawthorn.” [69].

Ovid identifies Cardea with Camea (offered pig’s flesh and beans). Associates White Goddess with pigs. Carnea > Roman goddess Cranae (Cranaea) = harsh or stony one. Cranae = rock (NB – Gaelic ‘cairn’).

White Goddess – white = first colour (= first member of moon-trinity). Io (the cow) changed colour – white > rose > black. Thus = new moon – White Goddess of birth/growth. Thus = full moon – red goddess of love/battle. Thus = old moon – black goddess – black goddess of death/divination.  These = witch colours?

NB – calf born to Minos + Persephone + colour changes three times daily. Three standing stones (red, white, black) – Moeltre Hill (Wales). [Apuleius – Golden Ass = account of White Goddess]. Hence > Moeltre = white raiser, red reaper, dark winnower (of grain). [70-73].

Includes Dame Ceres, Isle of Paphos.   Thus – “For the Phrygians that are the first of all men…”. [see – Mother of Gods at Pessinus, Cecropian Minerva, Cyprians – Paphian Venus, Cretans – Dictynnian Diana, Eleusinians – Ceres, Sicilians – Infernal Proserpine. Also – Juno, Hecate, Bellona, Rhamnusia, Queen Isis].




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