The Semites

From Hammurabi to the Hebrews. First records — close of 4th millenium. First king — dedicated vase in Nippur.

Region of Mesopotamia = 2 areas — Sumer (lower) and Akkad. Sumerians = Mongols. Akkadians = Semites.

Sumerians represented gods as bearded (Semites) but themselves were clean shaven.

Circa 3000 BC — picture carving + cuneiform script. Used bronze, canal irrigation. Evidence of connections with earliest Indus civilisation. Various cities = supremacy.

Circa 2700 — 2500 BC — Shargani ruled in Akkad. United Sumer/Akkad. Original — partly mythical Sargon. Grandson = Naram Sin — conquered surrounding peoples.

Circa 2100 BC — Amorftes moved into Mesopotamia via Upper Euphrates. Founded dynasty in Babylon. Start of Hammurabi’s reign. Sumer = Elamite dominion. Babylonia = advanced state of civilisation.

Chedorlaomer = head of confederacy that attcked Sodom and Gomorrah. Captured Lot — who Abraham rescued. Hammurabi identified with Amraphel of Shinar.

Circa this period — other Semite tribes took possession of coastland (Palestine + Phoenicia). Founded Phoenician cities.

After death of Hammurabi = Hittites (Khatti) with King Tidal. Afterwards Kassites moved in from the east.

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