The Sumerians and Ubaids

[Kondratov. Riddles of the Oceans].

Sumer = earliest inhabitants — who preceded Sumerians = Dravidians? Old Sumerian texts = words cognate with another (earlier?) language. Thus — words for — palm tree, date, plough, weaver, stonemason, fisherman, blacksmith, coppersmith, tin smith, farmer, carpenter, herder, merchant. Hence = Dravidians gave Sumerians foundations of their civilisation.

Place name analysis — Dravidians = Tigris/Euphrates — pre-Sumerian limes. Tigris = Idiglat. Euphrates =Buranun. Ur, Uruk, Nippur, Lagash, Kish, Eridu = not Sumerian. Also Enki (Lord of the Earth) = not Sumerian. Sumerians remodelled pantheon. Thus Enki > Ea. Origins of Sumerians — west regions of Indo-China? Caucasus?

Written records (Romania) ­similar to Sumerian (but earlier). Tartaria tablets? Thus — Balkan origin. Sumerians — non-maritime. They learnt navigation later. Origin = mountains = elevate gods. Sumerians = north Mesopotamia > south. Thus cultural upsurge (south Mesopotamia between 2″d half of 4th millenium). Led to rise of civilisation. This upsurge was not Sumerian. A new population reached southern Mesopotamia. These people = Ubaids (al-Ubaid, Ubeid). Al-Ubaid

Not far from Eridu (most southern of ancient Mesopotamian cites). 6000 years ago = sea port ­head of Persian Gulf. Eridu — later cut off by alluvia. Thus civilisation > opposite to flow of Tigris/Euphrates to Uruk, Ur, Lagash etc.

Archaeology and earlier myths — legends = civilisation > Mesopotamia by people (half fish/half men) led by Oannes (sailed across Gulf to Eridu).

Oannes — furnished mankind with writing, carts, sciences, cities, tools, temples. Oannes legend ­from Berossus (Babylonian priest). Oannes = Ea (older Sumerian god of waters), also ‘Lord of Wisdom’. But — Ea is remodelled Enki. Thus Oannes > Enki > Ea. Thus Eridu legend (Ea & gift of civilisation) = originally Ubaid. Eridu = stone age > leap > metals + irrigation, building. Ubaids — origins = First — linguistic excavation (isolation of Ubaid words in Sumerian). Thus — 20 Ubaid words + 20 place-names (approximately). Ubaid words — similar — Dravidian words, or Dravidian roots. Southern India — 100’s of words end in ur. Thus ‘ur’ = settlement, community, town. Idiglat (Tigris) = ‘Id’ = river, water [Indus cognate = originally — river, water]. [Dravidian n/nd = interchange — frequent]. Similarly — Dravidian ‘ger = hand. Suffix ‘ger’ > hand. Engar = peasant — maker of land. Nangar = carpenter — maker of wood. Damgar -= merchant — maker of trade. [Could signify Ubaid words].

Hence — similarity — proto-Indian culture and Mesopotamia. Thus — Dravidian > Ubaid. Campbell (143-144).

The Sumerians  — development circa 4000 BC. Peasant villages > size, expansion > market towns. Expansion > mudflats of riverine Mesopotamia. Sumerians = first appearance. Established Tigris/Euphrates delta flats sites. Became cities = ur, Kish, Lagash, Eridu, Sippur, Shuruppak, Nippur, Erech. Natural resources = mud, reads. Stone — imported from north. Imports of copper beads. Sun dried bricks = first appearance. First appearance — temples (ziggurats). Top of ziggurat = `…summit for the ritual of the world generating union of the earth goddess with the lord of the sky.’ (144). Evidence — following centuries = the queen/princess of each city — identified with the goddess + the king (her spouse) with the god. Painted pottery — earliest level of south Mesopotamian riverine sites = Obeid (Tell el-Obeid), south of southern Euphrates (not far from where Ur would be. See genesis 11.31, Abram + Sarah departed). [Ubaid = Tell al-Ubaid]. Finely ornamented (geometrical) pottery (less graceful than Halaf, Samarra). Not polychromatic but — pianted in black or brown on light background, circa 4000 to 3500 BC.

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