[V. Gordon Childe].
Earliest tools = bone, wood, stone = ready materials.
100,000s years — stone = only effective tool. Master changing environment. Utilitarian tools — designed.
Stone Age technology = interplay of raw materials in development/refinement of tools, weapons (hunting), preparing food.
Crucial evolutionary processes — 200,000 > 10,000 BP. Geological. Genetic.
Sudden environmental changes.
Pm-metal = Palaeolithic > Mesolithic > Neolithic.
Palaeolithic = lower, earlier. Earliest industries = pebble tools, choppers.
Africa — 1,750,000 BP. Implements — rough trimmed, whole stone = core tools.
Next stage = hand axe — developed, refined core tools
Earliest — Africa > Europe/Near East.
Principal industry = Acheulian (Saint Acheul — N. France).
Probable life of Palaeolithic people
Small nomadic bands. Hunter/gatherers — plants, fruits, nuts, roots, insects.
Remains — ear water, camps, no vessels.
Bone tools — especially — no suitable stone. Eg., Peking finds.
End of Lower Palaeolithic = fire.
Lower Palaeolithic = 3,000,000 > 300,000 BC.
Europe = beginning — last Pleistocene glaciations. Associated — Neanderthal Man. 300,000 > 40,000 BC.
Technological advance = flake tools, specialized tools, knives, preparing skins, spears, points, scrapers.
Possessed fire. Cave remains. Skin tents? 2
Homo sapiens — West Europe = 40,000 > 30,000 years ago.
Upper Palaeolithic = 40,000 > 20,000 BC. Mid > last phases of final glaciations.
Upper Palaeolithic = variety of stone implements — blades, flat, narrow flakes.
Many flakes from one core.
Main categories = (a) blades, (b) scrapers, (c) points, gravers, burins
Art, painting, engraving — totemic.
West Europe = 4 main cultures. All — named after French sites.
(1) Solutrean — thin leaf-shaped points (laurel leaves) = typical. Hatted onto spear shafts.
(2) Magdalenian — spear throwers, harpoons, needles.
Transitional cultures = North Germany, Scandinavia. Mesolithic
20,000 > 10,000 BC ?
Climatic changes — improved hunting techniques.
Magdalenian = bows, microlith techniques, bone fish hooks, hafted mattock, flake axe, adze/ axes hafted (tree felling/woodworking).
Denmark — semi-permanent settlements.
10,000 > 6,000 BC.
Hunting/gathering giving way to domestication of plants/animals.
Invention of agriculture. Pestles and mortars. Bone/antler tools, reaping knife.
Hunters/fishers. Natufian sickle =7,500 years old.
South West Asia — transitional Meso-Neo?